The research Chair on mistreatment of older adults has developed several teaching tools intended for professionals working with older adults, but also tools for the general public. We have also created a practice guidelines intended for professionals who intervene in the context of mistreatment.

imageinhandIn Hand has been designed to support health and social service practitioners in their ethical reflection leading to decision-making during the intervention process in a mistreatment of older adult situation. This decision-making framework contains three scenarios: suspension of follow-up, support and formal protective interventions. In Hand targets various competing values arising in a mistreatment of older adult situation and introduces various suggestions for practice and facilitates the identification of psychosocial and ethical issues raised in practice situations.

Origin and development

In Hand was developed in the following social context :

Chronology of work effected

Firstly, from 2000 to 2004, in order to understand the intervention process with mistreated older adults and in order to maximise this comprehension, a review of the literature on the ethical and psychosocial issues of the process was conducted. Meanwhile, accounts of practice were gathered from interviews with psychosocial practitioners having experienced intervention in mistreatment of older adult situations.

In 2004-2005, a first version of In Hand, in form of a decisional chart, was developedand followed by a first training program (2006-2007). In collaboration with community organisations, a second version of In Hand was produced (2006-2007) which was then followed by a new training program (2007-2009). During this same period, a validation of the tool (2007-2009) was conducted. Then followed a third version of In Hand, in the form of a practice guideline. This has now been adapted in English (Canada) and reproduced in booklet format in French and English (2009-2010). This having been done, the current training program is the third to have been developed around In Hand.

Review of literature

From the review of the literature (Beaulieu and Leclerc, 2006; Beaulieu, 2007), there emerged the five principal themes surrounding the psychosocial and ethical issues of practice :

Theoretical framework

The practice guideline In Hand falls within the theoretical framework of the principles approach developed by Beauchamp and Childress (2001).


Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. NewYork: Oxford University Press. 454 p.

Beaulieu, M. (2007). Maltraitance des personnes âgées, dans Hébert, R. et M. Arcand, Précis pratique de gériatrie, 3e édition. Édisem, Acton Vale, Québec, chapitre 69, p. 1145-1163.

Beaulieu, M., & Leclerc, N. (2006). Ethical and psychosocial issues raised by the practice in cases of older adults. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 46(3/4), 161-186.

Beaulieu, M., & Neesham-Grenon, F. (2010). Manuel d’accompagnement à la formation - Inventaire dans les situations de maltraitance envers les aînés : Guide de pratique En Mains. Document inédit, Université de Sherbrooke & Centre de recherche sur le vieillissement.


Facts on mistreatment of older adults Quiz I (all groups)

quizfacturel1The factual Quiz on mistreatment of older adults was developed based on the Facts on Aging Quiz by Palmore (1977), but adapted specifically to the issue of the mistreatment of older adults. Designed for anyone interested in or wishing to become familiar with the issue, this quiz is a tool for awareness, education and training, by addressing eighteen themes on the mistreatment of older adults.

Facts on mistreatment of older adults Quiz II (experienced groups)


Designed for those having a certain base of knowledge on mistreatment, this quiz is a tool for awareness, education and training, by addressing twenty-five themes relating to the mistreatment of older adults. It includes controversial issues in order to stimulate discussion around sensitive topics.

Development of the Quizzes

Versions 1 and 2 of the factual Quiz on mistreatment were developed respectively in 2010 and 2011. Based on the educational qualities of Facts on Aging Quiz (Palmore, 1977) and noting a lack of tools to prevent mistreatment of older adults, we had the idea of developing a quiz inspired by Palmore’s work, but specifically adapted to the issue of mistreatment of older adults. A first version of the factual Quiz I on mistreatment was developed as part of the Master’s in Social Service essay by Johannie Bergeron-Patenaude (2010).

Firstly, an extensive review of the literature on mistreatment of older adults was carried out which lead to the selection of twenty themes. Then, the development of the quizzes was begun by drawing up, for each of the selected themes, a true or false question for the Quiz I (addressing the general public) and another for the Quiz II (addressing an experienced public). The answers to these questions were obtained by an analysis of the documentation. Thus, for each question, a brief answer and explanatory details were written based on the Quebec, Canadian and international scientific literature. Subsequently, drafting of additional information which was to form the « Did you know that? » sections, was carried out. A trainer’s manual for each quiz was produced, in which the answers to the quiz are found, as well as information suggesting guidelines for training purposes.

A working meeting, gathering together the research assistants interested in this issue, was held to confirm the choice of the content and the form of the quizzes. The quizzes were modified following this meeting.

From May 2010 to October 2010 we conducted an initial running of the Quiz I (N=111) and the Quiz II (N=42) with older adults, psychosocial practitioners and other professionals. The participants completed one of the two quizzes and commented on the wording and the coherence of the questions.

For each of the quizzes, a PowerPoint presentation was designed to facilitate the trainer’s animation of the presentation.

From December 2010 to February 2011, a scientific committee made up of eight experts or practitioners in the field of mistreatment was set up to gather the comments as to the choice of the selected themes, the coherence between the themes and the quizzes, the wording of the questions, the credibility of the answers, as well as the content of the trainer’s manual and the PowerPoint presentation.

During the months of January and February 2011, we carried out an initial running of Quiz I and II with professionals, university students, older adult volunteers and students. The participants (N=108) were asked to complete the quiz and to comment on the wording and the coherence of the quiz. The participants’ answers were compiled and we made changes to the quiz in light of their comments.


quizfacturel-book1 quizfacturel-book2


Beaulieu, M., & Bergeron-Patenaude, J. (2011). Quiz factuel sur la maltraitance envers les aînés 1. Manuel du formateur. CDRV : Sherbrooke.

Beaulieu, M., & Bergeron-Patenaude, J., (2011). Quiz factuel sur la maltraitance envers les aînés 2. Manuel du formateur. CDRV : Sherbrooke.

Beaulieu, M., & Bergeron-Patenaude, J. (2011). Rapport sur les travaux entourant le développement des quiz factuels sur la maltraitance envers les personnes aînées 1 et 2. Remis à l’Agence de Santé Publique du Canada. 29 p.

Bergeron-Patenaude, J. (novembre 2010). Quiz sur la maltraitance envers les personnes aînées. Essai de maîtrise. Département de service social. Faculté des lettres et des sciences humaines. Université de Sherbrooke. Sherbrooke (Québec). 134p.

Palmore, E. (1977). Facts on aging : A short quiz. Gerontologist, 17, 315-320.

quizfacturelvieillissementThe factual Quiz on aging is an adaptation for Quebec of the Facts on Aging Quizzes by Palmore (1998). This quiz is a tool for awareness, education and training addressing twenty-five sets of themes on all the aspects relating to aging and the situation of older adults

Development of the Quiz

A review of the tools to counter ageism led to the decision to adapt the teaching tools Facts on Aging Quizzes, by Palmore, to the situation in Quebec. A working sub-committee looked into the wording of Palmore’s various quizzes, evaluating their pertinence to a contemporary educational aim, as well as identifying the most studied sets of themes over the last ten years. A committee of experts, made up of researchers in the mistreatment field, was established to suggest contemporary sets of themes in connection with the state of the knowledge and the issues regarding aging. These steps led to the identification of twenty-five themes forming the factual Quiz on aging.

The answers to the Quiz were formulated based on a documentary analysis of the Quebec and Canadian scientific and statistical literature of the last ten years. Subsequently, a trainer’s manual was developed to compile the answers to the quiz, their explanation, as well as the supplementary information contained in the rubric « Did you know that? ». In addition, a PowerPoint presentation was designed to facilitate the animation of the training.


Palmore, E. (1998). The Facts on Aging Quiz (2e éd.). New York: Springer Publishing.